AIRLANGGA (990 – 1049)

AIRLANGGA (990 – 1049) or often written Erlangga, is the founder of the Kingdom of Kahuripan, who reigned 1009-1042 with the title of Abhiseka Sri Maharaja Rakai Halu Sri Dharmawangsa Airlangga Anantawikramottunggadewa. As a king, he ordered Mpu Kanwa to change Kakawin Arjunawiwaha who described his success in war. At the end of his reign, his kingdom was split in two into the Kingdom of Kadiri and the Kingdom of Janggala for his two sons. The name Airlangga is still famous in various folklore, and is often immortalized in various places in Indonesia. The name Airlangga means “Water that jumps”.

He was born in 990. His father was named Udayana, king of Bedahulu kingdom of the Warmadewa House. His mother was named Mahendradatta, a daughter of Wangsa Isyana of the Medang Kingdom. At that time Medang became a powerful kingdom, even conquered Bali, established colonies in West Kalimantan, and launched an attack on Srivijaya. Airlangga has two younger siblings, namely Marakata (the king of Bali after their father’s death) and Anak Wungsu (ascended the throne after the death of Marakata).
In various inscriptions issued, Airlangga acknowledged as a descendant of Mpu Sindok from Wangsa Isyana of Medang Mataram kingdom in Central Java. The Airlangga fugitive married his uncle’s daughter Dharmawangsa Teguh (brother Mahendradatta) in Watan, capital of Medang Kingdom (now around Maospati, Magetan, East Java). When the wedding is underway, Watan Wari suddenly invaded King Wurawari from Lwaram (now the village of Ngloram, Cepu, Blora) [1], which is an ally of the Sriwijaya Kingdom. The incident is recorded in the Pucangan inscription (or Calcutta Stone).
Kern’s reading of the inscription, also confirmed by de Casparis, mentions that the attack occurred in 928 Saka, or about 1006/7. [2] In the attack, Dharmawangsa Teguh is killed, while Airlangga passes to the mountain forest (wanagiri) accompanied by a maid named Mpu Narotama. At that time he was 16 years old, and started living as a hermit. One proof of Airlangga petilasan while on the run can be found in Sendang Made, Kudu, Jombang, East Java.
After three years of living in the forest, Airlangga was visited by the people’s envoy who asked him to rebuild the Medang Kingdom. Given the city was destroyed Watan, Airlangga also build a new capital named Watan Mas near Mount Penanggungan. When Airlangga ascended the throne of the year 1009, the territory of the kingdom only covers the area of ​​Sidoarjo and Pasuruan alone, because after Dharmawangsa Teguh, many subordinate areas that escape. In 1023, the kingdom of Srivijaya which was the enemy of the House of Isyana was defeated Rajendra Coladewa king of Colamandala from India. This makes Airlangga more freely prepare to conquer the island of Java.
The period of war Since 1025, Airlangga expanded its power and influence along with the weakening of Srivijaya. At first what Airlangga did was to set up the power to reestablish the power of the Ishaans of the island of Java. But initially did not go well, because according to the inscription Terep (1032), Watan Mas then captured the enemy, so Airlangga fled to the village of Patakan. Based on the Kamalagyan inscription (1037), the royal capital has moved to Kahuripan (present-day Sidoarjo). Airlangga first defeated King Hasin (of?) [Citation needed]. In 1030 Airlangga defeated Wisnuprabhawa king of Wuratan, Wijayawarma king of Wengker, then Panuda king Lewa.
In 1031 Panuda’s son tried to take revenge but could be defeated by Airlangga. Lewa’s capital was destroyed as well. In 1032 a female king from Tulungagung area now defeated Airlangga. Watan Mas Palace destroyed. Airlangga was forced to flee to the village of Patakan accompanied by Mapanji Tumanggala, and build a new capital in Kahuripan. The king of women can eventually be defeated. In 1032 also Airlangga and Mpu Narotama defeated King Wurawari, avenging the Issa’il.
Last year 1035, Airlangga crush Wijayawarma king Wengker rebellion that once conquered first. Wijayawarma escaped from the city of Tapa but later killed his own people. The period of new Kingdom development with its center in Kahuripan, Sidoarjo, its territory extends from Pasuruan in the east to Madiun in the west. The north coast of Java, especially Surabaya and Tuban, became an important trading center for the first time. Airlangga ascended the throne with the title of Abhiseka Sri Maharaja Rakai Halu Sri Dharmawangsa Airlangga Anantawikramottunggadewa.
Airlangga also expanded the territory of the kingdom to Central Java, even the influence of its power was recognized to Bali. According to Pamwatan inscription (1042), the center of the kingdom then moved to Daha (Kediri area now).

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